A nanometer is a unit of length, 1 nanometer is one hundred thousand of one meter, the equivalent of only 50 nanometers thousandth of a human hair. Scientific experiments confirmed that when the normal material is processed to the nanometer scale, there will be specific physical and chemical properties, its magnetic, optical, electrical, acoustic, thermal, mechanical and chemical characteristics will startling change. As originally conductive copper at a certain limit will not conductive nano; originally began conducting insulating nano silicon dioxide at a certain limit; all have become nano metal powder can absorb light of black powder. The emergence of nanomaterials greatly expand the scientific imagination, with the continuous development of science and technology, nanotechnology will enter the lives of ordinary people, penetrate into clothing, food, field shelter, and so on. Experts predict that nanotechnology, information technology and biotechnology will be the three pillars of social and economic development in the 21st century.
Impact on various fields since the nano-metal materials since its birth impressive, largely because they tend to “stunt”, with excellent performance, and performance when complexed with other materials out of the unique properties, which are widely used in metallurgy , machinery, chemicals, light industry, electronics, defense, nuclear technology, aerospace, etc., are briefly as follows:
1. catalyst material: conventional catalysts of iron, copper, nickel, palladium, platinum, etc. made of nanoparticles can greatly improve the catalytic effect. With metal nanoparticles carrying increasingly sophisticated technology and improve the stability of nano-powder metal catalyst industry will be one of the important applications of nano metal powder industry.
2. the electromagnetic functional materials: nano-iron, cobalt powder can be applied to enhance the power and improve the sound quality speaker appliances and other fields. Such as nano-iron can be used as permanent magnetic materials, can greatly improve the performance of tape and large-capacity hard and soft disk.
3. Stealth absorbing materials: nano-metal powder as absorbing materials, with bandwidth, good compatibility, low mass, thin and so on. It plays an important role in the infrared-rays detector, the infrared sensor, a millimeter wave invisible infrared invisible and visible light and so on.
4. the metal nano-lubricant additives: metal nano lubricant additives product has the following characteristics: (1) superior anti-wear performance, extend equipment life 2-3 times, saving lubricating oil with about 40 percent, greatly reducing equipment maintenance, parts the number of replacement; (2) energy efficiency significantly increase the fuel efficiency of 10 to 32%, increase engine power by 20%; (3) reducing the temperature of parts during operation, reduce mechanical noise, reduce vehicle exhaust and smoke pollution, effectively prevent the equipment, outdated or overloaded vehicles cause trembling, burning oil and other phenomena; (4) a very excellent thermal stability, both in the hot summer temperatures make the minimum required to maintain machinery and equipment and running smoothly, but also in the cold winter quickly start the engine, running easily; (5) has excellent oil solubility, increase the variety of performance lubricants, extending oil seals, rubber, plastic mats deformation, aging, embrittlement of time.
5. anti, sterilization materials: nano silver Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and other dozens of pathogenic micro-organisms have a strong inhibitory and killing effect. As a new anti-infective products, this nano-silver antimicrobial powder is different from all of the current anti-infective with broad-spectrum, a variety of performance without resistance, without pH impact. Nano nickel, silver fungus, anti-corrosion coatings can also be used in the protection of cultural relics.
6. efficient combustion: Adding nano-iron, nickel, aluminum powder to the solid fuel rocket propellant can greatly improve the combustion heat and combustion efficiency of the fuel and improve combustion stability. Studies have shown that the solid rocket fuel was added to the 0.5% nano-aluminum or nickel powder, can increase by 10% -25% combustion efficiency, combustion speed number of times.
7. electrostatic shielding materials: the addition of nano metal particles in chemical products can solve their static problems and improve safety. Join in plexiglass or other organic synthetic nano-metal powder materials, can achieve electrostatic shielding, may also improve light transmission. Nano is expected to have greater prospects for development of metal in household appliances, electronic shielding and other industries.
8, the medical material: from the current research point of view, medical imaging, drug delivery, cell staining, cell separation, disinfection and sterilization in the future have to use nano-metal.